IPv4 Partition

This is a solution to task #2 from the 61st Perl Weekly Challenge, written in Raku.

You are given a string containing only digits (0..9). The string should have between 4 and 12 digits.

Write a script to print every possible valid IPv4 address that can be made by partitioning the input string.

For the purpose of this challenge, a valid IPv4 address consists of four “octets” i.e. A, B, C and D, separated by dots (.).

Each octet must be between 0 and 255, and must not have any leading zeroes. (e.g., 0 is OK, but 01 is not.)

Matching IP addresses

This challenge looks like it can be solved using regular expressions. Let's start by defining a regex for valid IP addresses.

  my $regex = / ^ ( '25' <[0..5]>          # 25n - covers 250 to 255
                    | [
                        [ '2' <[0..4]>     # 2n. – covers 20n to 24n
                          | '1' <[0..9]>   # 1n. – covers 10n to 19n
                          | <[1..9]>       #  n. – covers  1n to  9n
                        ]?                 # ^^  – optional
                        <[0..9]> ]         #   n – last digit for 0 to 249
                  ) ** 4 % '.' $ /;        # ^^^ x 4 separated by '.'

  for <0.0.0.0 1.1.1.1 10.0.0.1 10.10.10.10 192.168.1.254 199.199.199.199 201.201.201.201
       249.249.249.249 250.250.250.250 255.255.255.255 1.1.1.1. 1.01.1.1 1.2.3.256
       256.1.1.1 1..3.4 1.2.3.4.5 1.1.1.01> -> $candidate {
      say "{$candidate} is {$candidate ~~ $regex ?? "an IP address" !! "not valid"}";
  }
0.0.0.0 is an IP address
1.1.1.1 is an IP address
10.0.0.1 is an IP address
10.10.10.10 is an IP address
192.168.1.254 is an IP address
199.199.199.199 is an IP address
201.201.201.201 is an IP address
249.249.249.249 is an IP address
250.250.250.250 is an IP address
255.255.255.255 is an IP address
1.1.1.1. is not valid
1.01.1.1 is not valid
1.2.3.256 is not valid
256.1.1.1 is not valid
1..3.4 is not valid
1.2.3.4.5 is not valid
1.1.1.01 is not valid

This is the classic regex for matching valid octets, combined with the Raku quantifier separator % to mach octets separated by ..

A Simpler Regex

We should be able to simplify the regex by using a code block to validate the octet range, but sadly it's not quite strict enough so the code below allows leading zeros:

  my $regex = / ^ ( \d ** 1..3 <?{ $/.Int < 256 }> ) ** 4 % '.' $ /;

  for <192.168.1.1 1.01.1.1 1.2.3.256> -> $candidate {
      say "{$candidate} is {$candidate ~~ $regex ?? "an IP address" !! "not valid"}";
  }
192.168.1.1 is an IP address
1.01.1.1 is an IP address
1.2.3.256 is not valid

A Working Regex

This next avoids matching leading zeros by ensuring that the leftmost digit in a 2 or 3 digit number will only match 1..9.

  my $regex = / ^ ( [ <[1..9]> \d? ]? \d <?{ $/.Int < 256 }> ) ** 4 % '.' $ /;

  for <192.168.1.1 1.01.1.1 10.109.0.1 10.0.0.1> -> $candidate {
      say "{$candidate} is {$candidate ~~ $regex ?? "an IP address" !! "not valid"}";
  }
192.168.1.1 is an IP address
1.01.1.1 is not valid
10.109.0.1 is an IP address
10.0.0.1 is an IP address

The Challenge

Making use of this regex, I adapted it to the IPv4 partition problem by first dropping the . separator and then using the :exhaustive adverb to find all possible matches.

  multi find-ips(Str $input where / \d ** 4..12 /) {
      gather {
          take .list.flat.join('.')
          for $input ~~ m:exhaustive
              / ^ ( <[1..9]> ** 0..2 \d <?{ $/.Int < 256 }> ) ** 4 $ /
      }
  }

I added a multi variant to catch invalid input and a MAIN for running it.

  multi find-ips(Str $input) {
      die "{$input} is not a valid input, it should be 4 to 12 digits.";
  }

  sub MAIN(Str $input) {
      CATCH { default { .say } }

      my @ips = find-ips($input);
      say "Found {+@ips} potential IP address{+@ips == 1 ?? '' !! 'es'} in {$input}:";
      say @ips.join("\n").indent(4);
  }
./ipv4-partition.pl6 25525511135
Found 2 potential IP addresses in 25525511135:
    255.255.111.35
    255.255.11.135
./ipv4-partition.pl6 4444
Found 1 potential IP address in 4444:
    4.4.4.4
./ipv4-partition.pl6 11
11 is not a valid input, it should be 4 to 12 digits.
  in sub find-ips at ./ipv4-partition.pl6 line 11
  in sub MAIN at ./ipv4-partition.pl6 line 17
  in block <unit> at ./ipv4-partition.pl6 line 2

./ipv4-partition.pl6 19216812
Found 9 potential IP addresses in 19216812:
    192.168.1.2
    192.16.81.2
    192.16.8.12
    192.1.68.12
    19.216.81.2
    19.216.8.12
    19.21.68.12
    19.2.168.12
    1.92.168.12
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