# Roman Numerals in Raku

My first shot at the Perl Weekly Challenge with a Roman numeral encoder in Raku (nee Perl 6).

I have been watching the Perl Weekly Challenge with interest since it was first announced, but without the time to actually participate. This week there are three challenges, the first of which is to write an encoder for Roman numerals:

Write a script to encode/decode Roman numerals. For example, given Roman numeral CCXLVI, it should return 246. Similarly, for decimal number 39, it should return XXXIX. Checkout wikipedia page for more informaiton.

#### Roman to Decimal

A Roman numeral can be decoded by splitting it into symbols, converting each to a decimal then adding the decimals to give a result. 'One-before' numerals such as IX can be handled as a single symbol, giving this list of symbols:

my %r2i =
'I' => 1, 'IV' => 4, 'V' => 5, 'IX' => 9,
'X' => 10, 'XL' => 40, 'L' => 50, 'XC' => 90,
'C' => 100, 'D' => 500, 'CM' => 900, 'M' => 1000;

The decode algorithm can be implemented by matching all the symbols, taking a slice of the conversion map and then reducing the slice to its sum.

my $roman = 'CCXLVI'; say [+] %r2i{$roman.match(/ ( <{%r2i.keys}> )* /).flat>>.Str }
./roman-decode.raku
246

That works fine but is surprisingly slow, more so for long numerals. Instead of using a regex match, we can use split and keep the delimiter values with :v – though we do need to filter out all the zero length strings between the delimiters.

take %i2r{$radix} x$number / $radix;$number %= $radix; } } ./roman.raku encode 39 XXXIX It's kinda nice using gather / take here but I'd prefer a functional solution over this explicit iterative solution. Enough time spent already so that will be for another day. #### The Resulting Program use v6; my %r2i = 'I' => 1, 'IV' => 4, 'V' => 5, 'IX' => 9, 'X' => 10, 'XL' => 40, 'L' => 50, 'XC' => 90, 'C' => 100, 'D' => 500, 'CM' => 900, 'M' => 1000; multi MAIN('decode', Str$roman) {
say [+] %r2i{ $roman.split(%r2i.keys, :v).grep(*.Bool) } } my %i2r = %r2i.antipairs; multi MAIN('encode', Int$number is copy where 0 <= $number <= 3999) { say [~] gather { for %i2r.keys.sort: -* ->$radix {
take %i2r{$radix} x$number / $radix;$number %= \$radix;
}
}
}
./roman.raku decode MMXIX
2019

./roman.raku decode MCMLXXXIV
1984

./roman.raku encode 2019
MMXIX

./roman.raku encode 1984
MCMLXXXIV
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